|Brand||NPP STRUCTURNAYA DIAGNOSTIKA|
|Material||metal products, determination of steel grades, scrap of non-ferrous and ferrous metals and alloys.|
|Spectral Resolution||0.01 Nm Over The Entire Measurement Range.|
|Interface||WIFI and Bluetooth|
|Light Source||Pulsed DPSS Laser1064 nm|
Metal Spectrometer is used for inspection, quality control, and alloy identification. Many times this is also called as metal analyzer. In Market Bench top and Portable both variants are available. In bench top most popular is OES Spectrometer and in case of Hand Held Portable Spectrometer X-Ray and LIBS Spectrometer Both are available. X Ray hand held analyzers are basically a PMI (Positive Metal Identification Machine). For more accurate metal analysis Optical Emission spectrometer is used.
Here we have association with a technology innovator company for India, this company manufacturing LIBS Spectrometer (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy). We have both Handheld LIBS Spectrometer for field use and also Online Spectrometer. This Metal Analyzer is more accurate than X- Ray PMI and also gives more number of Light Elements.
Our LIBS Spectrometer gives Carbon Value in ferrous base metal without use of any argon gas. Apart from Ferrous our machine works with Aluminum Base, Titanium Base, Nickel Base, Zinc Base and Copper Base. We are selling our spectrometer across India and also in neighboring countries.
|Parameter||Basic hardness units (HRC, HB, HV)|
|Display Type||Bright color graphic display|
|Model Name/Number||TKM-359CE Leeb Method|
|Dimension||4.8" x 2.7" x 1.6" (121 x 69 x 41mm)|
|Weight||0.66 lbs (0.3kg)|
|Hardness Scale||HRA, HRB, HSD scales and ultimate tensile strength|
|Screen Mode||Full Screen Mode|
Olympus is proud to introduce the OmniScan® SX, a flaw detector that benefits from more than 20 years of phased array experience and shares the OmniScan DNA. For improved ease of use, the OmniScan SX features a new streamlined software interface displayed on an 8.4 in. (21.3 cm) touch screen. A single-group and non-The OmniScan SX comes in two models: the SX PA and SX UT. The SX PA is a 16:64PR phased array unit, which, like the UT-only SX UT, is equipped with a conventional UT channel for pulse-echo, pitch-catch or TOFD inspection. Compared to the OmniScan MX2, the SX is 33% lighter and 50% smaller, offering an unprecedented level of portability for an OmniScan.The OmniScan SX touch screen offers a full-screen mode option that maximizes visibility, essentially converting many menu functions into easy touch-screen operations. The intuitive interface provides smooth menu selection, zooming, gate adjustments, cursor movements, and text and value input. These, along with other premium integrated features, including easy-to-follow setup and calibration Wizards, a rapid refresh rate for both the S-scan and A-scan displays, and a fast pulse repetition frequency (PRF), make the OmniScan SX a highly efficient inspection tool.The OmniScan SX is fully compatible with the extensive portfolio of Olympus scanners, probes and accessories, as well as with its dedicated software companions, NDT SetupBuilder and OmniPC. Combined, the complete family of software and hardware contributes to a streamlined and efficient inspection workflow, from design and setup to acquisition and analysis.modular instrument, the OmniScan SX is easy to operate and cost-effective for less demanding applications.The OmniScan SX touch screen offers a full-screen mode option that maximizes visibility, essentially converting many menu functions into easy touch-screen operations. The intuitive interface provides smooth menu selection, zooming, gate adjustments, cursor movements, and text and value input.The OmniScan SX is fully compatible with the extensive portfolio of Olympus scanners, probes and accessories, as well as with its dedicated software companions, NDT SetupBuilder and OmniPC. Combined, the complete family of software and hardware contributes to a streamlined and efficient inspection workflow, from design and setup to acquisition and analysis.Key features:
|Screen||Bright, Large Touch Screen|
|Software||New OmniPC Analysis Software|
The result of over 10 years of proven leadership in modular NDT test platforms, the OmniScan MX has been the most successful portable and modular phased array test instrument produced by Olympus to date, with thousands of units in use throughout the world.
Olympus now offers a new PA module with TOFD, a new UT module, as well as new software programs (NDT SetupBuilder and new OmniPC version) that expand the capabilities of the successful OmniScan MX2 platform and improve the workflow efficiency of nondestructive testing inspections.Key features
Multi-technology system that offers eddy current, magnetic flux leakage, remote field and IRIS ultrasound technologies.
|Speed Range||600-1000 rpm|
|Frequncy Range||10-20 Mhz|
Rotating Bolthole Scanners line of high performance eddy current scanners is available for use with Nortec Eddy Current Flaw Detectors. With a wide range of features consisting multiple connector types, and multiple probe types, our scanners offer a full range of application solutions. Some of the more common applications are: airframe hole inspection with or without fasteners, wheel bolt hole inspections, surface inspections, post production testing for cracks, tube plug testing, and low frequency inspections through multiple aircraft skin layers.
Aircraft around the globe are repeatedly subjected to drastic temperature changes, which cause condensation and humidity to collect on the inside of the aluminum skin. This humid environment between layers leads to hidden corrosion that must be detected and repaired during regular in-service inspections.As a part of its series of aerospace solutions, Olympus proposes an innovative fastener and subsurface corrosion inspection technique, which propels eddy current technology into previously uncharted territory. This new technology detects, sizes, and evaluates the depth of corrosion between the aluminum layers of commercial and military aircraft, providing efficient and reliable results.
|Parameter||Basic hardness units (HRC, HB, HV)|
|Hardness Scale||HRC, HB, HV HRA, HRB, HSD scales and ultimate tensile strength|
High precision hardness tester TKM-459CE intended for quick measuring of metal items hardness in laboratorial, manufacturing and field conditions.
Device is intended for non-destructive testing of production quality in metallurgy, mechanical engineering, aircraft, shipbuilding, atomic industry, oil and gas industry.Hardness tester functions by UCI method (Ultrasonic Contact Impedance).TKM-459CE controls hardness of following:
|Parameter||4 ultrasonic channels built for industrial use (IP65)|
|Accuracy||+- 0.2 mm|
|Brand||Q NET Engineering GmbH|
|Test Range||testing at small radii and undercuts possible|
|Test Force||inspection frequencies: 5 - 25 MHz|
|Frequency||inspection frequencies: 5 - 25 MHz|
|Measuring Direction||measurement repeatability: +- 0.2 mm|
|I Deal In||New Only|
|Testing Software "SHD-Studio"||setup mode custom test programs import / export of test programs tools for visualization and anal|
Surface hardening improves the wear resistance and fatigue strength of dynamically stressed components. These functional characteristics are mainly determined by surface hardness, hardening depth and residual stress.
An essential quality feature of the surface hardening process is the thickness of the hardened layer (SHD). Currently, the hardened layer can only be tested in random samples using destructive methods, a procedure that is both costly and time-consuming.
Ultrasonic waves propagating in polycrystalline materials (steel) are scattered at material interfaces with changes of density and/or elastic properties. In general, the ultrasonic waves are scattered in all directions, one part also back to the ultrasonic transducer that generated the ultrasonic pulse. The intensity of backscattered ultrasound received by the transducer depends on the ratio of geometric size of scattering geometry to the wavelength of ultrasound and on the degree of material property difference at the interface denoted by the term acoustic impedance change.
In the regime where the ultrasonic wave length is large compared to the size of scattering geometry, higher ultrasound frequencies (or shorter wave lengths) increase the intensity of ultrasonic backscattering. Further, intensity of backscattering increases with the average effective size of the scattering geometry, for example the grain size of the polycrystalline steel. Using the appropriate frequency of about 20 MHz, the microstructure change between the hardened case (usually fine grained Martensite) and the core material with coarse grained microstructure causes a distinct increase of backscattering intensity. This effect can be observed when the ultrasonic pulse crosses the interface and standard time of flight evaluation yields the depth position of the interface that corresponds to the Surface Hardening Depth (SHD
|Measuring Range||from 0.2 to 100.0 mm.|
|Model Name/Number||Crack depth meter 281M|
|Material||for measuring the depth of cracks exposed on various metals and alloys (incl. stainless steel, dural|
|Usage/Application||Shafts, rolls, rolling mills, details of constructions, machines and mechanisms; Pipes, tubes, oil-|
|Minimum crack length||5 crack depths, no less than 3 mm|
|Maximum crack width (depending on the sensor design)||up to 3,5 mm|
|REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROL OBJECTS||Surface roughness - below or equal to 40 Rz (10 Ra) Stable electric contact with the sensor electro|
Crack depth meter 281M - High-precision instrument for measuring the depth of cracks exposed on various metals and alloys (incl. stainless steel, duraluminum), previously detected by other methods.
(in comparison to traditional methods).
|Charger||10 hours Back Up|
|Power||is self-contained from 2 Ni-MH batteries (1.2 V) or similar or from battery type AA 1.5 V ALK|
|Battery Backup||10 hours|
|Minimal fracture opening||0,05 mm|
|Minimum detectable fracture length||10 mm|
|Detectable fracture depth range||0,3 - 5 mm|
|Fracture depth measurement inaccuracy||0,2 mm + 0,1h (where "h" is crack depth)|
|Insulating coating thickness measurement range||0 - 6 mm|
|Insulating coating thickness measurement inaccuracy||10 %|
|Maximum insulating coating thickness allowing fracture detection||up to 10 mm|
Magnetic-eddy current flaw detector VID-345 is intended for detecting cracks and measuring their depth, detecting stress- corrosive cracks in metal ferromagnetic constructions, even under layer of corrosion and/ or protective coating.
Flaw detector enables to measure depth of corrosive damage as well as thickness of protective coating.
The device combines magnetic and eddy-current methods for flaws detection, which enables the user to control products with rough corroded surface and to measure through the layer of insulating coating of variable thickness without any additional readjustment.
|Model Name/Number||EPOCH 650 Ultrasonic Flaw Detector|
|Frequency||Auto or manually adjustable PRF from 10 Hz to 2000 Hz|
|Display Type||Large, full VGA resolution transfl ective display for vivid clarity in any indoor lighting and direc|
|Rapid Scanning||2 kHz PRF for rapid scanning|
|Battery Life||15 Hours|
|Range Receiver||Digital High Dynamic|
The large, full VGA transflective display combined with our patented digital high dynamic range receiver provides a stable, striking A-scan representation in any lighting condition. The EPOCH 650 is designed to meet the requirements of EN126681 and allows a full range of standard and optional flaw detection features. Multiple onboard reporting tools and a comprehensive data filing system enable you to easily collect and report high quality inspection data.The rugged, ergonomic design allows use in nearly any inspection environment, while the flexible PerfectSquare™ pulser and highest number of digital filters in its class can tackle nearly any applicationKey Features:
|Analysis Type||Physical/Chemical Properties|
|Standard Certificates Required||Yes|
|Value Data Report On||Material Properties|
|Sector Type||Aerospace, Power Generation, GAS, Paint and many more|
|Coating Test||coating thickness measurements of paint, lacquer, galvanic, powder bitumen and other coatings on su|
|Periodic Assessment Service||Yes|
Small-sized device for operative coating thickness measurements of paint, lacquer, galvanic, powder bitumen and other coatings on substrates from ferrous and non-ferrous materials with increased temperature range.
— colour OLED display with 1.7’’ diagonal, large digits on display;
— device can be delivered with integrated combined small-sized probe for measuring coating thickness on substrates from ferrous and non-ferrous materials;
— increased temperature range up to -30°C;
— possibility of tolerance mode measurement, measuring with averaging;
— device can be delivered with integrated probe or with built-in probe on cable.
Basic technical characteristics
— accuracy: in range T = 0…500 µm ±(0,02T+1) µm; in range T = 500…Tmax ±0,02T µm;
— temperature range: for device: -30 °C…+40 °C; for probe: -40 °C…+ 50 °C;
— power-supply: built-in Li-Ion rechargeable battery, 3,7 – 4,2 V, 700 mAh;
— overall dimensions: 120 × 45 × 20 mm;
— weight: 130 g;
— operating time: min 8 h.
The device can be completed with measuring probe, set of coating reference specimens (calibration foils), sample of metal substrate, charging unit, operating manual, container for storage and transportation (case or bag).
|Display||Matrix Backlight LCD|
|Operation||Menu Selectable, Membrane Keypad|
|Total Load||588.4N/60kgf, 980.7N/100kgf, 1471N/150kgf|
Rockwell A, B, C,D,E,F,
Rockwell A, B , C, D,E, F, G, H,K, L, M, P, R, S, V
English, French, Germany
2-50 seconds, can be set,
2-50 seconds, Can be set,
2-50 seconds, Can be set, dynamic displayed and stored
2-50 seconds, Can be set, dynamic displayed and stored
ISO6508.2 , ASTM E-18
Portable Surface Roughness Tester - TIME3100 is a pocket-sized economically priced instrument for measuring surface texture conforming to traceable standards. It can be used on the shop floor in any position, horizontal, vertical or anywhere in between.The large LCD display shows either roughness parameter Ra or Rz at the touch of a button, combined with the selected cut-off length. External calibration of roughness values is possible by means of a special CAL button, which makes adjustment of this instrument very easy. A beep signal informs the user of each individual measurement status when ready.The easy to use TIME3100 operates on various surfaces, not only flat but also outer cylinder, outer cone, grooves, and recesses greater than 80 X 30mm. The areas of application are wide spread. This unit is most suitable for inspection departments, quality control, on the shop floor during machining, assembly and on-site.TIME3100 determines both roughness parameters Ra and Rz within a wide measuring range (See specifications below). The piezo-electric pick-up stylus with diamond tip assures a very reliable measurement within tolerances in conformance with ISO Class 3. Ra parameter is in conformance to ISO while Rz conforms to DIN standards
Industry Application There is a report analyzes every business who uses the tester, and enumerate the customers especial Time’s customers in order to comprehend the using of the testers in every industries more deeply.
|Thickness||20 Measurements Per Second|
The Olympus 27MG is an affordable ultrasonic thickness gage designed to make accurate, measurements from one side on internally corroded or eroded metal pipes, tanks, and other equipment. It weighs only 12 oz. (340 g) and is ergonomically designed for easy, one-hand operation. Despite its compact size, the 27MG has many innovative measurement features utilizing the same technologies that are available on our more advanced thickness gages. The durable, rugged 27MG is battery-operated and features a large, backlit LCD with easy-to-read numerals, and an intuitive color-coded keypad with direct access to many key features.Standard features include Automatic Probe Recognition to ensure optimal transducer performance, Auto Zero compensation to enhance the accuracy of measurements on hot surfaces, Gain Adjust to improve measurements on sound-attenuating materials such as cast metals, Differential mode, Hi-Low Alarm settings, and a Min./Max. mode that captures the minimum or maximum thickness at 20 measurements per second.The 27MG is designed for inspectors and maintenance engineers that need to monitor the wall thickness in metal pipes, tanks, beams, and structural supports that are susceptible to corrosion on the inside surface. An ultrasonic thickness gage provides a quick, cost-effective solution by transmitting sound into the material from the outside, making it unnecessary to damage the part.
|Port Type||USB Communication|
The 45MG is an advanced ultrasonic thickness gage packed with standard measurement features and software options. This unique instrument is compatible with the complete range of Olympus dual element and single element thickness gage transducers, making this innovative instrument an all-in-one solution for virtually every thickness gage application.
· It is compatible with dual element transducers for
· measuring thickness on internally corroded metals
· Password instrument lock
· Two Alarm modes
· Time-based B-scan
· Differential mode
· Designed for IP67
· Optional protective rubber boot with gage stand
· Wide operating temperature range
· USB communication port
· Internal and removable MicroSD memory card storage
· Colortransflective QVGA display with indoor and outdoor color settings is used for providing high readability
· Simple keypad for right hand/left hand operation
· Password protected instrument lock
· Easy operator interface is used for accessing most of the functions
|Thickness||0.08 mm to 635 mm|
|Resolution||0.01 mm or 0.001|
|Element Transducers||2.25 MHz to 30 MHz|
The 38DL PLUS is an innovative instrument that signals a new era in ultrasonic thickness gaging. Ideally suited for almost every ultrasonic thickness application, this handheld thickness gage is fully compatible with a full line of dual and single element transducers. The versatile 38DL PLUS can be used in applications ranging from wall thinning measurements of internally corroded pipes with dual element probes to very precise thickness measurements of thin or multilayer materials with single element transducers. The 38DL PLUS comes standard with many powerful but easy-to-use measurement features and a host of application-specific software options. Its sealed case is designed to meet IP67 requirements to withstand the rigors of very wet or dusty environments. The colortransflective VGA display provides superior readability from bright sunlight to complete darkness. It features a simple, ergonomic keypad that can be operated with the left or right hand for easy access to all functions.
|Display Resolution||640x480 VGA|
|Filter Selections||37 Digital Receiver|
|Speed Scanning||6 kHz Pulse|
The EPOCH 1000 Series Digital Ultrasonic Flaw Detectors combines the highest level of performance for conventional portable flaw detection with the power of phased array imaging. The EPOCH 1000, 1000 iR and 1000 i feature a new horizontal case style with full VGA display, knob and navigation arrows for parameter adjustment, and full EN126681 compliance. The advanced conventional ultrasonic functionality of the EPOCH 1000 series is augmented in the EPOCH 1000 i with phased array imaging capabilities.Rugged. Portable. Meets the Demands of the Toughest Inspection Environments The EPOCH® 1000 Series is designed to meet the IP66 environmental rating. Tested for shock, vibration, explosive atmosphere, and wide temperature range, these instruments can withstand operation in harsh inspection conditions. Some of the EPOCH 1000 Series' other key physical Features Include:
|Locking Devices||Each Axis To Be Locked|
The FOCUS LT™ is a high performance phased array acquisition unit designed for seamless integration with fully automated inspection systems.Equipped with powerful TomoView™ software, up to three FOCUS LT units can be driven simultaneously, providing increased productivity and reduced inspection time.Key features:
Portable Eddy Current Flaw Detectors OmniScan MX ECA/ECT OmniScan MX enables you to see defects and details under any light conditions. Navigate your way through the instrument’s simple and intuitive interface using the scroll knob and keys, or by connecting a USB mouse to facilitate the inspection analysis.
|Display Size||5.7 Inch|
|Long Battery Life||Up to 10 hours|
|frequency capacity||10 Hz to 12 MHz|
Olympus converges its latest advancements in high-performance digital circuitry and eddy current flaw detection into one compact and durable portable unit—the new NORTEC® 600. With its crisp and vivid 5.7 inch VGA display and true full-screen mode, the NORTEC 600 is capable of producing highly visible and contrasting eddy current signals in any lighting condition.The redesigned interface of the NORTEC 600 borrows the intuitive, knob-operated navigation of its NORTEC predecessors and combines it with the simple menu structure and highly efficient direct-access keys of other popular Olympus instruments. Available in four versatile models, the NORTEC 600 offers a wide range of innovative functionalities, including an Application Selection menu, an all-in-one display, real-time readings, and signal calibration in Freeze mode, ensuring that inspections are quick and easy for any level of operator.Olympus converges its latest advancements in high-performance digital circuitry and eddy current flaw detection into one compact and durable portable unit—the new NORTEC® 600. With its crisp and vivid 5.7 inch VGA display and true full-screen mode, the NORTEC 600 is capable of producing highly visible and contrasting eddy current signals in any lighting condition.The redesigned interface of the NORTEC 600 borrows the intuitive, knob-operated navigation of its NORTEC predecessors and combines it with the simple menu structure and highly efficient direct-access keys of other popular Olympus instruments. Available in four versatile models, the NORTEC 600 offers a wide range of innovative functionalities, including an Application Selection menu, an all-in-one display, real-time readings, and signal calibration in Freeze mode, ensuring that inspections are quick and easy for any level of operator.
Eddy Current Probes current probes consist of the acquired brands of Nortec and NDT Engineering. We offer more than 10,000 standard and custom designed eddy current probes, standard references, and accessories. This section features many of the standard design probes that are available in a wide range of diameters, frequencies, and connector styles.Olympus also offers custom probe designs to meet specific inspection requirements. Eddy current probes may be designed to match the contours of a part or shaped to fit into a fixture for fast and accurate inspections.
Weld Probes offer a cost effective method to inspect in-service ferrous welds. The inspection method is a clean, non-hazardous alternative over magnetic particle inspection, which does not require the removal of coatings such as paint or oxidation. Weld probes offer sensitivity to flaws in varying orientations and may also be used as a general purpose surface probe on any ferrous material.
Sliding probes are specifically designed to inspect rows of fasteners. They operate in reflection mode (driver/pickup coils) and are used to find surface and near-surface flaws.
Sliding probes are available in two different types:
The fixed versions typically include the Fischer/LEMO Triax connector and their underside is relieved to enable the probe to easily slide over raised fastener heads.
With thousands of units being used throughout the world, the OmniScan® MX is a field-proven, reliable instrument that is built to withstand harsh and demanding inspection conditions. Compact and lightweight, its two Li-ion batteries provide up to 6 hours of manual or semi-automated inspection time.
The highly legible 8.4 in. (213 mm) real-time color display of the OmniScan MX enables you to see defects and details under any light conditions. Navigate your way through the instrument’s simple and intuitive interface using the scroll knob and function keys, or by connecting a USB mouse to facilitate the inspection analysis.
Olympus NDT is pleased to introduce the new Doubler Edge Skin Crack Inspection solution, which utilizes the latest ECA technologies for subsurface detection. Drastically reduced inspection times, C-scan imagery, large probe coverage, encoded scan, and data/setup recording capabilities are just a few of the many benefits of OmniScan technology. Intuitive imagery with the C-scan allows for higher probability of detection and better reproducibility, and also makes it easier to identify the rivet row and edge on-screen. Thanks to its wide coverage, probe positioning is not critical. This coverage also enables both edges of the doubler to be covered during the same scan.In comparison with the conventional method of performing this type of inspection, this solution is a major step forward in terms of reduced inspection time
|Battery||Up to 9 hours|
|Display Mode||Full-Screen Option|
The BondMaster® 600 delivers a powerful combination of multiple mode bond testing software and highly advanced digital electronics, providing consistently crisp and high-quality signals. Whether you are inspecting honeycomb composite, metal-to-metal bonds, or laminate composite, the BondMaster 600 offers exceptional ease-of-use thanks to its direct-access keys and streamlined interface that features convenient presets for common applications. The enhanced user interface and simplified workflow of the BondMaster 600 offers archiving and reporting that are accessible to any level of user.The resolution and brightness of the 5.7-inch VGA screen on the BondMaster 600 handheld bond tester becomes even more apparent when switched into full-screen mode. Activated by the simple touch of a key, the full-screen mode is always accessible regardless of the display mode or inspection method you are using. The BondMaster 600 bond tester is programmed for a range of standard inspection methods, including pitch-catch RF, pitch-catch impulse, pitch-catch swept, resonance, as well as a notably improved mechanical impedance analysis (MIA) method
Bond Testing Improvements
Important to Note
The 35RDC is a simple Go/No-Go ultrasonic gage designed to detect subsurface defects caused by impact damage on aircraft composite structures. Features a backlit LCD that displays the word GOOD if no subsurface damage is found or the word BAD when it detects subsurface damage.
|Coil Type||32 Coil|
|Efficient Inspection||Magnetic And Non-Magnetic Alloys|
As a part of its eddy current array solutions, Olympus proposes an innovative pipe inspection kit for stress corrosion cracking detection.Though the results are comparable, ECA technology is much less time-consuming and labor-intensive than penetrant or magnetic-particle inspection. With ECA inspection, you can eliminate costly and complicated procedures, such as paint and coating removal.The new versitile ECA probe with interchangeable wedges fits a wide-range of pipe sizes.With the new continuous mode, scan imagery is revealed in real time with a constant results stream.
3) ECA Subsurface Crack Detection
Commercial and military aircraft are built by joining overlapping aluminum sheets together with thousands of fasteners. Fatigue cracks on the underlying layers of aluminum are often concealed by the first sheet layer. To guarantee the integrity of any airplane, these hidden flaws must be detected and repaired during regular in-service inspections.
As a part of its series of aerospace solutions, Olympus proposes an innovative fastener and subsurface crack inspection technique, which propels eddy current technology into previously uncharted territory. This new technology provides an incredibly clear image of cracks under the first layer of aluminum aircraft skin, providing efficient and reliable results
|Inspection Time||Up to 15|
Olympus propels eddy current technology into uncharted territory in the aerospace industry, with an innovative surface crack detection solution for lap-splice inspection. The structure of an aircraft contains thousands of fasteners, so ensuring their integrity can be an arduous process. Conventional inspection techniques are typically very time consuming and the probability of detection is highly dependant on operator skill. Nevertheless, for over a decade the technology has remained relatively stagnant ... until now.Using eddy current array considerably reduces the duration of an inspection, and detection probability is increased. This solution not only saves man-hours, but its streamlined inspection process helps minimize the possibility for error.